About Bali Island is a beautiful island located in Indonesia famous with cultures, places of interest, social life, religion and hospitality that is ideally for holiday.
Bali Island is a small island and a part of Indonesia Archipelagos. It is one of the most favorite tourist destinations in the world with a lot of fascinations for tourist to come and see the cultures, Balinese life, beautiful coast, mountain, hotels, villas, resort and others. It is a unique island which majority occupied by Balinese Hindu with their active and attractive ritual in daily social life. We can see a lot of the interesting one that we look for in the island from the traditional performance, adventures activities, exciting excursion, beautiful beaches and a lot of more.
Bali population based the census on 2001 has reached 3.156.392 and Balinese it self is not stay in Bali Island but also spread out through Indonesian island. Bali race is a group of community banded by the awareness or oneness of culture. The Balinese Traditional is much banded by the social live aspect like conduct the pray in the temple, to place in the certain area together etc. The Balinese were not able to develop and sustain their extremely complex agricultural economy for centuries on end without a very organized community structure.
Balinese Culture and Hindu Religion
The main religion practiced in Bali is a form of Hinduism called Agama Hindu Dharma, where the Hindu it self is consisted of some religious sect, but in Bali all of Balinese are Hindu Ciwa. The two religions (Hindu and Buddhist) arrive from Java and some extend from India during the 8 th to 16 th centuries. The main symbol of Balinese Hinduism is the Swastika or wheel of the sun. An important belief is that elements of nature are influenced by spirit, which has been appeased. As such offerings (Sesajen) made from agriculture product are offered to this spirit. It is believed that Mount Agung is the abode of the gods and the ancestors. As such, it is revered as the `mother` mountain and is highly sacred to the Balinese. Balinese people have been well known as the agrarian and friendly people. They are holding the strong social life that are still be defended up to now and become the fortress from unfavorable external influence pressure.
Balinese Hindu Nyepi Day
Balinese Hindu Nyepi Day , Every religion or culture all over the world has their own way to define and celebrate their new year. For example, the Chinese have the Imlek year and to celebrate it, have, as they called it in their own language, "Gong Xi Fat Choy". The Moslem societies have their Muharam year, and any of the people over the world using the Gregorian calendar, celebrate the New Year on January 1st.
The same thing also occurs in Bali, however the Balinese use many different calendar systems. They have adopted the Gregorian calendar for business and government purposes. But for the endless procession of holy days, temple anniversaries, celebrations, sacred dances, building houses, wedding ceremonies, death and cremation processes and other activities that define Balinese life
They have two calendar systems. The first is the Pawukon (from the word Wuku which means week) and Sasih (which is means month). Wuku consists of 30 items starting from Sinta, the first Wuku and end up with the Watugunung the last one. The Pawukon, a 210-day ritual calendar brought over from Java in the 14th century, is a complex cycle of numerological conjunctions that provides the basic schedule for ritual activities on Bali. Sasih, a parallel system of Indian origin, is a twelve month lunar calendar that starts with the vernal equinox and is equally important in determining when to pay respect to the Gods.
Westerners open the New Year in revelry, however, in contrast, the Balinese open their New Year in silence. This is called Nyepi Day, the Balinese day of Silence, which falls on the day following the dark moon of the spring equinox, and opens a new year of the Saka Hindu era which began in 78 A.D.
Nyepi is a day to make and keep the balance of nature. It is based on the story of when King Kaniska I of India was chosen in 78 A.D. The King was famous for his wisdom and tolerance for the Hinduism and Buddhism societies. In that age, Aji Saka did Dharma Yatra (the missionary tour to promote and spread Hinduism) to Indonesia and introduce the Saka year.
Balinese Hindu Galungan Ceremony
Balinese Hindu Galungan Ceremony is a sacred ceremony that gives spiritual strength to be able to distinguish between life force coming from adharma and which budhi atma is the voice of truth (dharma). It also gives the ability to discern giant orientation (asura sampad) and orientation of God (god sampad). It must be realized that life is happy or emo life has the ability to master the giant orientation.
Galungan Ceremony is also one of the Hindu religious ceremony to remind people ritually and spiritually in order to always win the Goddess Sampad to uphold dharma against adharma. In the lontar Sunarigama, Galungan and details of the ceremony are described in detail. Regarding the meaning of the ejection Sunarigama Galungan is described as follows:
Budha Kliwon Dungulan Ngaran Galungan patitis ikang janyana samadhi, galang apadang maryakena sarwa byapaning idep
Meaning: Wednesday PON ( Balinese calendar ) Dungulan name Galungan, the only spiritual high point in order to get a clear view to eliminate any clutter the mind.
Thus, the core Galungan is uniting spiritual strength in order to get a clear mind and establishment. Spiritual union and the bright minds here in the form of dharma. While all the chaos that thought (byaparaning idep) is a form of adharma.
Bali Tenganan Perang Pandan
Bali Tenganan Perang Pandan is specific to Tenganan village only. The word " perang pandan" is a two words noun in Indonesian language, This war dance in Tenganan village is called " makare-karean " This event is carried out during the ceremony of the temple called " Ngusaba " It is strange because this kind of ceremony is also known by the rest of Balinese, especially those living on lowland with rice irrigation system called " Ngusaba Nini " The basic idea of this ceremony is to request a good rice harvest. At lowland area this ceremony is not a regular one, but it is decided by the village elders with ritual leaders in a plenary meeting. While in
Perang Pandan is a regular ceremony based on Çaka year calendar and is organized in the village temple. While at lowland areas especially in Kabupaten Gianyar this is conducted for a ceremony called " Maleladan " ( a procession along the village main road toward the temple ). It is hard to understand who influenced whom in this case. Seeing from the name of the ceremony it must be an influence of lowland, since the rest of ceremonies and customary organization's terminologies
Tenganan is specific, and " Ngusaba " is belong to a mid-Balinese vocabulary ( ca. 14 to 16 century A.D.), an era when the Majapahit influence was becoming intensive. Çaka year is a lunar calendar created 78 years after Christian Era ( 78 Anno Domini ). Since this ceremony is based on Çaka year and Hindu-Java calendar, so it is hardly able to know the exact International Calendar date within which this ceremony will fall. We can only know the exact date around 6 months ahead of the date. While Hindu-Java calendar is consist of 210 days. Balinese use these two systems at the same time, and mixed it up. So you can find a ceremony coming every 210 days, and every 365 days.
Despite the fact that Bali Aga village has their uniqueness, but in common they share almost the same way of thinking. They consider religion, customs, arts, architecture, economy and other cultural aspects as the same entity and are involved in each of their creation and work. For example is the dance. Dance is considered as a ritual requirement, an amusement, and medium of education. While dance can be a performance from any kind of art, such as the idea of woman beauty, the warrior strength, prime minister wisdom, up to the animal behavior which interests the artist to imitate, and translate it into dance. No one doubt that Perang Pandan originally was a war dance or practice of self-defense which is also introduced by the rest of the world's ethnics in its different form and fashion. The only thing in Bali is that almost all dances are considered as the requirement of a ritual.
Balinese Hindu Wedding Ceremony
To be married with someone you love in a very special way should be a special event and held in a very exotic place. Which is why many westerners have been choosing Bali as their place to get married. It has romance, mysticism and a unique culture. Balinese Wedding Ceremony is a unique wedding procession based on Balinese Hindu rituals.
Wedding is Important Things for Balinese Hindu People
Balinese Hindu Wedding Ceremony is unforgettable momentum for the human being where the procession is followed by Hindu rituals, custom regulation and the perfect day based on Balinese Hindu Calendar. A marriage couple will use the beautiful uniforms which are all adapted from the local during the procession. For Balinese, especially for Balinese Hindu, their wedding is one of the most important things in their life as the wedding ceremony is a sign or an announcement that he or she is to begin a new level of life by leaving the Brahmacari stage.
Proses of Balinese Hindu Wedding Ceremony
Balinese Hindu Wedding Ceremony proses begins with :
1. Memadik process, where the groom's family meet with the bride's family to ask the bride if she wants to marry the groom. If the answer is yes, the bride will go with the groom to his family's house.
2. Later (either that day or several days following) the couple will hold a wedding ceremony where many people from both families, along with friends and villagers, will witness the wedding ceremony.
3. After the wedding ceremony, the couple and their families go to the bride's house to say "good bye".
Balinese Hindu Wedding Ceremony in Local Society
When people get married in Bali, the man takes responsibility as a member of society. He gets the right to speak at a Banjar (the community body) meeting and must take on social duties, such as attending the temple ceremonies and taking part in the community activities. In this way other members of the Banjar will come to recognize him as an adult and he will have the opportunity to take on more responsibility in the Banjar.
Balinese Ngaben Ceremony Or Cremation Ceremony
Balinese Ngaben Ceremony or Cremation Ceremony, is the ritual performed in Bali to send the deceased to the next life. The body of the deceased will be placed as if sleeping, and the family will continue to treat the deceased as sleeping. No tears are shed, because the deceased is only temporarily not present and will reincarnate or find his final rest in Moksha (freeing from the reincarnation and death cycle).
The proper day of the Ngaben ceremony is always a matter of consulting a specialist on ceremony days. On the day of the ceremony, the body of the deceased is placed inside a coffin. This coffin is placed inside a sarcophagus resembling a buffalo (Lembu) or in a temple structure (Wadah) made of paper and wood. The buffalo or temple structure will be carried to the cremation site in a procession. The procession of Ngaben is not walking in a straight line. This is to confuse bad spirits and keep them away from the deceased.
Ngaben is on of the most important ceremony in Bali. Because human body consist of 10 basic elements. One 5 elements we call as Panca Maha Butha or five macro cosmos element: Pertiwi (soil), Apah (water), Teja (fire), Bayu (air) and Akasa (ether or space). And the other 5 memories elements we call as Panca Tan Matra which is the five element that influence us from our sense which is consist of: Ganda (from the nose or smell), Rasa (from the tongue), Rupa (from the eyes), Sparsa (from the skin sense), Sabda (from the ears).
Balinese Offering, In Hinduism, food plays an important role in rituals and worship, and the food offered to the gods is called prasada. The Sanskrit word "prasada" means "mercy," or the divine grace of God. We can make the preparing of food, the offering of food to God, and the eating of the food offered, into a powerful devotional meditation. If, as a meditative discipline, we can offer our food to God with devotion before eating it, not only are we not implicated in the karma involved in acquiring the food, but we can actually make spiritual progress by eating the offered food. Our devotion, and God's grace, subtly transforms the food offered from material nutrition to spiritual mercy or prasada.
Food or Meals
Bali is rich of wood or meals that you can try it on your vacation in this island. Most of them are spicy therefore please take a note of it before you eat. There are many famous food you can eat includes Suckling Pig (Babi Guling), Roasted Chicken (Ayam Betutu), Lawar (Mix vegetable), Sate Lilit, Crispy Duck and much more.
It is very important that you must know before visiting the island since all Balinese people are very respectful again to the strong their local cultures. Here below are the list that you can not do during stay in Bali as follows:
1. Never touch other people head (It will be very insulted again the self esteem)
2. Never pointed to other people face with thumb
3. Never put your leg on the table
4. Do not pass when the convoy of ceremony on the road except allowed by the local security (Pecalang)
5. Never use offensive clothing (underwear ) when watching the ceremony event entering a temple
6. Do not enter the Temple when you menstruation for women